No. 22, August 2008

A Mappe of the Man of Sin

  Click the image to enlarge it From early in the Reformation the Pope was identified with the 'man of sin' spoken of by St Paul in his Second Epistle to the Thessalonians 2:3-4, and thus regularly identified in Protestant polemic with the Antichrist. According to Paul, on the Last Day will be revealed 'that man of sin ..., the son of perdition; Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God'. In the year following publication of the present sheet, one I.P. composed a tract against the Anabaptists entitled, Anabaptismes mysterie of iniquity unmasked... also wisedomes bountie unmasking the man of sinne (1623), but use of the phrase was a commonplace of Protestant rhetoric, as seen, for instance, in John Rainolds’ sermon, The discovery of the man of sinne: wherein is set forth the changes of Gods church, in her afflictions by his raigne. Consolations by his ruine (1614). Subsequently, in the magnificent engraved frontispiece to 'The Second Tome' of William Prynne’s Exact Chronological Vindication… (1665) St. Paul himself identifies the Pope (depicted here with triple crown falling from his head) as the Man of Sin. The man of sin: or a discourse of Popery: wherein the numerous and monstrous abominations… of the Romish church are by their own hands exposed… by William Hughes appeared in 1677, and, at the time of the Popish Plots, the motif is pressed into service yet again, specifically, in the seventh pageant of The Solemn Mock Procession … (1680), which, according to the 'Explanation' beneath the print, represented 'the Man of Sin himself on a Throne, with his Counsellor the Devil inspiring of him, what new Artifice of cruelty must come next…'

The present Man of Sin, ESTC S96046, 1 is a magnificent engraved broadside which survives uniquely in Princeton University Library. The Stationers Register entered it to John Bellamie on 6 July 1622, as A picture called the Man of sinne revealed or a Map of the kingdome of Antichrist and the Ruyns thereof, and it does indeed bear the imprint, 'Are to be sould by Iohn Bellamie at his shop at the 2 Grey hou[n]ds in Cornehill neer thexchang'. The text is signed 'W.G. scripsit et trans.', who has plausibly been identified as William Gouge, ‘arch Puritan preacher at Blackfriars and chronicler of the 1623 Fatal Vespers’ (referring to the collapse of a chapel in Blackfriars at which a prominent Jesuit was preaching). 2 On the other hand, I do not know what W.G. was translating, even though the word must surely imply a foreign original for the whole design.

The twenty lettered constituents of the composition are keyed to a verse text, as well as being provided with banderole inscriptions and Biblical references. (For full transcription and commentary, see below.) Figure A is the 'sly impostor' who aspires to tread on Mount Sion (labelled B), on whose summit is a sunburst bearing the Tetragrammaton. He is dressed in 'menstruous rags' according to the caption (or 'polluted clouts', as the verse styles them), carries a crosier, and shields his eyes from the sudden increase in the power of the sun’s rays, augmented from a vessel held by an angel (labelled C) despatched from heaven. The excess of light blinds him ('blind this Blinder') and 'shews hid [his] hipocrisies', as with the end of his crosier, figure D, that 'Unerring Man'—used ironically as a satirical glance at the claimed papal infallability—muddies the waters of 'sweet Siloes streaming foard' (which issue from a classical anthropomorphic fountain, also labelled D), and as figure E, forces the laity to drink the 'stir’d dregs'. Figure D is also shown with a church on each shoulder, as is figure F, his 'Abby-lubber Preest', who holds a further two churches in his hands, which he and figure G, 'Gold-linde Simony' (with a church on one shoulder and a bag of money in his left hand), 3 offer to the large central figure, labelled H.

Behind Simony, a simoniac prelate (labelled I) vomits out churches of various sizes that he has previously devoured, and behind him an impressive complex of buildings, labelled K, is presumably intended for the Vatican, from the highest tower of which flutters a banneret inscribed with the Latin and English texts of I Peter 1:24: 'These all must passe, Like flower of Grasse.' Adjacent to it is an equally impressive cathedral labelled L, 'Gods Temple', which a ray from 'Heav’ns jealous Eye' (M) pierces. In the top right hand corner of the sheet, is the Tower of Babel (O) starting to collapse, and in the act of falling from its pinnacle is a naked woman (labelled P) with a goblet in one hand and a mirror in the other, the papal tiara having already fallen from her head; the verse identifies her as 'th’Abominable Whoore', and mentions her 'Cup of Witchcrafts' and her 'Crowne'. Her caption is a verse from Isaiah which alludes to the fall of Babylon, and a recumbent bishop (labelled Q) at the base of the Tower, still holding his church, laments, 'Alas Alas Babilo[n] that great Cit[y]' (Revelation 14:8)—there is no doubt that we are to identify her as the Apocalyptic Whore of Babylon. Despite their differing vowel quality in modern English, 'Babel' and 'Babylon' are the same word (from Hebrew 'babel') and, as the Oxford English Dictionary notes, the name of the city was also used for ‘the mystical Babylon of the Apocalypse; whence, in modern times, [it was] applied polemically to Rome or the papal power’. As the text makes clear, the ruin of Babel/Babylon is also the ruin of 'her Rich lovers', including the 'Emperours, kings and Preests', here labelled R, whose crosiers and sceptres are indeed depicted 'slent' [broken]. The engraver has also shown 'The Chair orturnd', doubtless intended to be the papal throne. 4

To the left, labelled S, is heaven’s gate which is guarded by the symbols of the Four Evangelists and from which 'proceede lightening and thunder'; despite the number of churches the bishop (whose crosier falls apart) has brought with him, he and his fellows are shown being repulsed. The palatial Heavenly City, labelled T, is surmounted by another blazing sun bearing the Tetragrammaton. Curiously, placed outside the confines of the City, the 'Redeemed' (labelled V), 'Palmes in their hands', harp and sing in honour of the Deity. A, D,E and the 'Manne' all wear soft squareish caps which are doubtless intended to resemble the type worn by Jesuits.

Several figures in A Mappe of the Man of Sin are depicted with one or more churches on their shoulders, but this particular motif—the pluralist who holds two or more benefices at the same time—was a recurring and, in fact, quite non-denominational complaint. It is found illustrating the title-pages of two pamphlets issued in 1642, the anonymous A Purge for Pluralities, shewing the unlawfulnesse of men to have two Livings. Or The Downe-fall of Double Benefices, in which the relatively crude woodcut depicts a minister bearing churches on both shoulders and one in his right hand, and Blaxton’s A remonstrance against the non-residents of great Brittaine, in which the accomplished engraving entitled, The Carelesse Non-resident, shows a minister bearing a church on his right shoulder and holding another in each hand. In 1681 Samuel Hieron’s The Protestant Mirrour...or, The careful resident, and the careless non-resident was issued in the form of a single-sheet broadside headed by engraved portraits of the two types of clergyman: the 'Carefull Resident' bearing one church on his right shoulder, the 'Careless Non-Resident' having one in each hand and a third on his head. Issued in 1622, the present sheet is the earliest instance of this pluralist motif known to me, unless the puzzling Doctor Panurgus sheet engraved by Martin Droeshout (1601-after 1639) and most recently dated to the 1620s by Antony Griffiths, 5 is earlier (see Print of the Month for November 2006).

A Mappe of the Man of Sin (transcription)

A Mappe of the Man of Sin: wherin is most lively delineated the Rising Raigning and Ruine of the Kingdome of Antichrist: Rising by Pride shutting the Booke of God and imposing Huma[n]e traditions on mens Consciences Raigning by Avarice, Simony, Superstition, Pleasure, and Hipocrisie. Ruined by Gods Spirit casting downe the Babell of their Abo[m]inations, & discoveri[n]g their da[m]nable Actions. All gathered out of the expresse word of God.

From auntient dayes Sins Misterie gan worke
Which did in Error-led Professors lurke.
Faind Faith, hells instrument, sins proper cell,
This Babels ground work laid: when thus befell;
A That sly Impostor, under glozed stile
Of Holines, with Humane Doctrine vile,
Cast 6 to obseure [sic] the Gospels light; which done,
His rule ore all the Universe might run;
And weening t’ set unhallowed feet, upon
B Sacred Mount Sion, Gods Delight, Gods owne;
The place reservd his Chosen flocke to feed
C Power on the Sun was pourd (Heavens king decreed)
To blind this Blinder, and his deeds descry.
And’s Righteousnes, wheron he did rely;
These then appearing at the best but as
Polluted clouts wherewith he clothed was.
D This that Unerring 7 Man, who leaves the Word,
Wisdomes fayre Fount, sweet Siloes streaming foard,
E Drinking stir’d dregs, and forcing others soe,
Willfull to hast his owne and others woe
But Careles to cut short, or curbe at least
F (Yea guerdoning) each Abby-lubber 8 Preest;
Whos Lucer 9 lets him not Christs Church up-build,
Busied to reape the Gaines his churches yeild.
G And Gold-linde 10 Simony there there stands in grace,
To get desertles Hierlings higher Place:
The Devils goatheards; ravening Theuees [sic] that venter
To clime the fold, but not the right Dore enter:
H The Universall Vicar will dispense
With these (for th’ Churches state) without offence;
His Eye of Judgment darkned to discearne
His trusted charge, & what might truth concer[n]e:
False AntiChrist, an Idole shepheard hight,
Seeking his flocks fleece, not their benifit.
I But lett them heape on Wealth to Wealth; Gods power
Makes them cast out what (soe) they doe devoure,
K And though Romes sectaries erect strict Rites
In Holy-Counted 11 Cloysters; full delights
Are their sole aime; but those (alas!) soone turne;
When these, that joy, shall sadly sit and mourne
L For having made this Hallowed House of prayre
A Thevish Den, by lawlesse actions there
M: The while Heav’ns jealous Eye beholds each thing;
N. And sends a venging Sword, swift plagues to bring,
Showld breake the strength of that proud Man of Sin
O. With this; the Babell wher their trophies been
Gods furious Wrath for ever casts to ground
And doth th’Abominable Whoore confound
P. Whose Cup of Wichcrafts, and her Crowne orethrowne, 12
Q Cause her Rich lovers mazedly 13 to mone.
R Her Ruine ruinng [sic] Emperours, kings and Preests
Made Sacrilegious, by her Hellish hests:
The Chair orturnd, their Croziers, Septers slent; 14
And they (deservdly) in darcke Horror pent.
S No Merits may obtaine Heavns entry for them;
For those Angellicke ministers abhorr them.
T Gods Citty is reservde for such as trust
Not in their owne works, but on Christ the just
V Wher his Redeemed prayse with endles joyes 15
Him that saves His, and thus his foes destroyes

W:G: scripsit et trans:

Are to be sould by Iohn Bellamie at his shop at the 2 Grey hou[n]ds in Cornehill neer thexchang

Inscriptions on print


Their faire appearanc is but like the menstruous rags of a harlot 16

Every one that doeth evill hateth the light least his deeds should be descovered Joh: 3.20.

“This light (ill sent for us) doth cheeere
Their hearts, that only God doe feare:
But strickes 17 our soules, and shuts our eyes,
And shews our hid hipocrisies.”


I Psal: 132 13. 14.


Power was given to the Sun to scorch men with fire:
and men were scorched with great heat and blasphemed the the [sic] name of God
Revel: 10.8.9.


Isay. 8.6.
this people refuseth the waters of Siloah that goe softly and rejoyce in Rezim


Their Watchmen are gredy doggs, which can never have enoughe and they are shepheards that cannot understa[n]d they all looke to their owne way every one for his gaine from his quarter. Isa. 56.10.11

G Simony

He that entereth not by the doore into the sheepfold, but climeth up some other way; the same is a theefe and a robber. Joh 10.1

In their hands is wickednes; and their right hands are full of gifts. Psalm: 26.10.


A wonderfull and horrible thing is comitted in the land the prophets prophecie falsly, and the preists beare rule by their meanes Jer: 5.30.31. Jer: 23.2. Psal 37.15. Ezech.34 2. Psal. 31.18.


He hath swallowed downe riches and he shall womit [sic] them up againe; God shall cast them out of his belly. Job 20. 15


What will ye doe in the day of visitation, and in the desolatio[n] which shall come from farr, to whome will yee flee for helpe, and wher will yee leave your glory Isai: 10.3.

The triumphing of the wick[ed]: is short; and the joy of Hypocrits is but for a moment Job:20.5.

Sicut flos foeni
These all must passe,
Like flower of Grasse.

{Laetantes } Hodie
{Ludentes }
{Lugentes } Cras
Luke 6.25

L Gods Temple

My house shall be caled [sic] the house of prayer but yee have mad it a Den of theves Math 21:13.


Is this house become a den of robbers in your eyes behold even I have seen it: saith the Lord. Jer.7.11.


Woe to the idole shepheard , that leaveth the flocke the Sword shall be upon his arme, and upon his right Eye: his arme shall be clean dried up, and his right eye utterly darkened. Zach.11.17. 18


The poeple [sic] shall labor in vaine and be weary for thou shalt be desolate for ever saith the Lord. Jerem. 51.26. 58 19


Come downe and sitt in the dust o Babilon for thou shalt no more be called tender and dilicat. Isay 47.1.


Alas Alas Babilo[n] that great Cit. 20

Rev: 18 15 the marchants of the earth shall stand weeping & wailing for Babilon.


Know that I am God, i [sic] will be exalted in the earth. Psal: 46

Jer: 51.57. I will make drunke her princes and her wise men; and her rulers & they shall sleep a perpetuall sleep and not awake


Scelesta Scelestis
To the ill their portion of evill

Rev: 4 21 Out of the throne proceede—lighte[n]i[n]g and thunder.


Coelum Coelestibus
Heaven is for heavnly ones

There shall enter into it none wncleane [sic] thing neither whatsoever worketh abomination or lyes Revel: 21.27.

The New Jerusalem above
Admits of none but such as love
Gods lawes to hold and him obay
From hence foule soules must keepe away


A great multitud of all nations stood before the Throne and and [sic] the Lambe with whit robs and Palmes in their hands sayng Salvation to our god, and unto the Lambe Rev.7.9. 22

They that got victorie over the beast having the Harps of god: sung the songe of Moses and the songe of the Lamb. Revel: 15.2.

Rare Book Division, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library. Shelfmark: (Ex) BT985 .W5e. Dimensions of original: 443 mm x 545 mm.


STC 11511.2 [1622] (misdated 1623? by both ESTC and STC). See Malcolm Jones, ‘Engraved Works Recorded in the Stationers’ Registers, 1562-1656: a Listing and Commentary’, Walpole Society, 64 (2002), pp. 1-68, on p. 32 (no. 176). Back to context...
The identification was suggested by the anonymous Quaritch cataloguer when the item was sold. Back to context...
Not the right hand required by the quotation of Psalm 26. Back to context...
OED, s.v. 'chair', sense 4.a. ‘The seat of a bishop in his church; hence fig. episcopal dignity or authority. Obs. or arch’. The Dictionary cites The Troublesome Raigne of King John (1588), ii.109: 'Treade downe the Strumpets pride, / That sits upon the Chaire of Babylon', and Jeremy Taylor, Episc. (1642), 337: 'S. Peter would have advanc'd him to the Honour and power of the Bishops chaire.' Back to context...
Antony Griffiths, The Print in Stuart Britain 1603-1689 (London, 1998), pp. 146-8 (no. 91); A.M. Hind, Engraving in England in the 16th and 17th centuries (3 vols., Cambridge, 1952-64), II.364, ‘engraved about 1620’. Back to context...
= OED, 'cast' 43a. Back to context...
i.e. infallible (antedates OED). Back to context...
OED, 'abbey-lubber': 'A lazy monk; a reproachful name in regular use after the Reformation: 1538 Starkey, England, 131 (1871): "The nuryschyng also of a grete sorte of idul abbey-lubbarys wych are apte to no thyng but as the byschoppys and abbotys be, only to ete and drynke." ' Back to context...
i.e. lucre. Back to context...
gold-lined, i.e. (pockets) lined with gold. Back to context...
i.e. accounted holy. Back to context...
see Rev.17.4: 'full of abominations'. Back to context...
not in OED. Back to context...
OED 'slent', v.3: 'Now dial. [Of obscure origin.] To split or cleave; to rend.' Back to context...
some mistake? Back to context...
cf. Isaiah 64:6. OED 'menstruous' 3: 'Defiled (as if) with menstrual blood (in the Old Testament referred to as the type of horrible pollution). Hence, in the 17th c. often: Horribly filthy or polluted. Obs.: Isaiah 64:6 marginal note (1560 Geneva version): "Our righteousnes and best vertues are before thee as vile cloutes, or, (as some read) like the menstruous clothes of a woman." Jonson Alchemist (1610) iii. i, 31ff.: "This heat of his may turn into a zeal, / And stand up for the beauteous discipline / Against the menstruous cloth and rag of Rome." Winyard Midsummer-Moon (1648) 1: "The Scarlet-whore of Babylon spawn'd it with her / menstruous profluviums." ' Back to context...
= strikes. Back to context...
NB: this suggests AV is version used throughout. See OED 8. 'The phrase "idol shepherd" used in Zech. 11:17 in Geneva Bible and 1611 (where the Vulg. has "O pastor et idolum, ..." was frequently used in 17th-century polemics, sometimes with allusion to idolatry, sometimes with idol taken as "counterfeit" or "sham", sometimes associated with idle, and so "neglectful of duty". 1560 Bible (Genev.) ibid.: "O idole shepherd that leaveth the flocke." 1575-85 Abp. Sandys Serm. (Parker Soc.) 71: "Wo therefore to the idle and idol pastor." 1590 H. Barrow in Confer. iii. 55: "We are ledd unto Idoles when we are ledd unto such Ministers as you, which are Idole Shepherds and Ministers." 1611 Bible Zech. xi. 17: "Woe to the idoll shepheard that leaveth the flocke." 1612 T. Taylor Comm. Titus ii. 1: "All idle, and idoll, Ministers that thrust themselves in for Pastors, and can onely feed themselves." 1634 Canne Necess. Separ. (1849) 121: "Reading of homilies in the church is said to be but the instrument of foolish and idol shepherds." ' Back to context...
It is a blend of the two verses. Back to context...
Revelation 14:8. Back to context...
recte 5. Back to context...
and 10. Back to context...